Or °rN

Robert Williamson Brokaw

COLONEL FREDERICK PHISTERER

BREVET MAJOR-GENERAL ACTING ADJUTANT-GENERAL. MAY 15. 1901. TO JAN. I, 1902

ill

r

"Boltratfa

in tip

of Million

IBfil ttt 1BB5

OJmnjrilrii bg

©lytrb

lUHxtutrs aitii Index

Alhang

13. CgDn (Cnut^attu, g-fatr 1912

The manuscript of this historical record, the life work of General Phisterer, was in the hands of the printer at the time of his death. As a tribute to his memory the following order of the Governor announcing the death of General Phisterer is here republished.

of Nero fork,

Albang, Jnlg 13, 19H0.

r&w0, ) JJo. 4fl. f

Mitly feelings of deep Borrom tfye (governor annonnreB to tlje mili- iarg and nanal forces of tlje l^tate tfye death, of Htentenant-<Eolonel

reitet ^ajor-Oleneral, at IjiB Jyome in Albany 13, 19H9.

[J|iBterer utafi born in &tntto,art, Mnrtemberg, O^ermang, 11, 1B30.

iiilitarg Uerord:

3fn % Armg of % United States.

•UJritratr-, OIo. A, 3b 31. &. Artillrrg, Sr-r. fi, 1855; (Eorporal, ®rt 12, 1B5B; Jtaljj 10, 1BH0; Ijonorablg biarljargpb, Srr. fi, 18fi0; ^rgrant-ilator, 31. ^. 3(nfantrg, Jlulg 31, IBfil; ^rronb ffimttenant, ®rt 30, IBfil; 3Kirat . 2T, !Bfi2; Olaptain, 3Fr-b. 15, IBfifi; tranafprrpb to 36tlj[ 31. 0. 3lnfantrg, Jlulg 2B, IBfifi; tranafrrrrb to rth 31 0. Knfantrg, iiar. 3, !Bfi9; lyonorahlg biarh.arg*b, Ang. 4, 1BT0.

in tlir National dnard.

daptain, dotifrnor'a (Snarba, (®I|io National (Snarb, Ang. 27, IBff; rraignr-b, 3an. 27, 1BT9; Ololon^l anb Arting Aaaiatant Abjntant-<8r-nwal, ^. N. ^., Jan. 1, 1BB0; Aaaiatant Abpitant-Ofonr-ral, Nov. 22, 1B92, tttitly original rank; rrappointrb Jan. 1, 1B97, tuitlj original rank; Aaaiatant Abtntant-C^^n^ral on tij? ataff of tlj? iEator-C^rntral rommanbing tlj* National (Snarb, of tljf grab* of Hiwttrnant-GIolon* I, Iw. 23, 1B9B; aaaign*b to bntg tmbrr rommiaaion of Srrwrt Urigabirr-Ciirnpral aa Arting Ab|ntant-(ipnr-ral, ^. N. f ., ilag 15, 1901, to Jan. 1, 1902; Aaaiatant Abtntant-CSrnrral on tl|? ataff of ttjf Major- Ofonn-al rommanbing tljF National

(Suaro, of ti}t grail* of (Culnurl. Ular. 5, 1903; Aoitttant-CSrnrral of th.* grate of Ctratrnant-Cgolonrl. Jan. 30, 190H. mi tit original rank, ana aaaignea to tljr staff of thr ittauir-CSrnrral rommanoing thr uimsunt.

iBrrurt Srigaoirr-CSrnrnil, Srr. 23, 1B0H.

Srrurt iflajor-<5rnrral, 3an. 2,

life of (Brnrral JlytHt^wr during a Uwt$ rarerr of publtr

rlyarart^rize!i bg logaltg to rmuttrij ani isnammtiitQ to oirtg. 3Fntt offir^ra Ijatw ion? aa murJj aa J|p tn prouwt? Uy0 riftrottnj of tl|? ^tat^ i^tlttarg form anb Ij? in f ttttibb to b? rallrJi tl|? nf tl|p National O^uarb of tb.tB ^tato. Ait ofiSr? r of unoamtfro ano of *mttt* «t ahilttg, Jjia rarwr 10 a aljinutg jxampb to mrg ritiz^n. In hta iiruth Ihr S>tatt monrna tiic loaa of a born aolofrr, ana a man of iuuiupalionr& int^nritg luhu aiarljarrjrb % ontira of rurrg |ioaition hr uiaa rallrft noon to fill ablij, rfiirirntly ano ronari^ntionalg.

In rrii^rrt to liia mnunry % National flag mill b? biaplagpo at b.alf ataff at all hraiinnartcra, armorira ano atatr ararnala, until rrtrrat of Jribag, 3ulg Ifi. 1909, % bag of Ijia funeral

Vg rommano of thr (Sottrntor: 2folaon 1

(Tbannrru JJ. Htlliama.

AflHtBlattl AI» jirtattt-Oirnfral.

Untem? 1

in

mattg 0f urfjam

, tljat

^^THIS the third edition of " New York in the War of the Rebellion "—

ill is published as part of the annual report of the Adjutant-General of

the State of New York for the year 1908 in accordance with the

provisions of chapter 433 of the Laws of the State of New York for the

year 1909, by

NELSON H. HENRY,

The Adjutant-General, S. N. Y.

^^^•^HE compilation here submitted is the result of devoting for twenty- m *m five years almost all hours not demanded by official duties to the

A m L collection of the data contained herein. The work was com- ^^|^F menced in 1883; after the most strenuous labor the first edition was published in 1890; followed the same year by the second edition, which corrected unavoidable typographical errors ; this the third edition contains some corrections, changes and additions.

The data were obtained from official or equally reliable sources ; in many instances estimates became necessary and these were invariably based on the most conservative foundations.

This is not a work of fiction, it is composed of bare facts; it is not a work of comparisons ; it is a record of the State of New York during a time which weighed heavily on her sons and daughters, made as complete, correct and concise as it was practicable to make it and its existence is due in a large measure to the Adjutants-General of the State from 1883 to date, to Colonel J. W. Kirkley, statistician of the War Department, and to many officers of New York Volunteers and other gentlemen too many in number to mention by name, whose information proved valuable.

The work consists of six parts; each part and division is preceded by remarks, which explain its scope and intent.

Part I. In the State. II. In the field.

III. The roll of honor.

IV. Sketches of organizations and register of officers. V. Appendices.

VI. Indices.

Albany, December, 1908.

fart 1-lftt

In 1861 9-26

In 1862 27-38

In 1863 39-46

In 1864 47~5 !

In 1865 52-142

Men called for 57~59

General calls 57, 58

Special calls 58, 59

Credits due the State 59~66

For service in Regular Army 59, 60

For service in Navy and Marine Corps 60, 61

For service in U. S. Volunteers 61

For service in U. S. Veteran Volunteers 62

For service in the Veteran Reserve Corps 62

For service in the Colored Troops 62

For service in Volunteers of other States 62

For service in Militia and National Guard 63

For service in the Volunteers of the State 63

For men who commuted service 63

For representative recruits 63-65

Recapitulation of credits 65

Drafts 66, 67

Periods of service of the men enlisted 67

Individuals in the service 68-70

Nativities of the individuals 70

Ages of the individuals 71, 72

Where the men were obtained 72~78

Organizations in U. S. service 78

Of Militia and National Guard 78-80

Of State Volunteers 80-91

Cavalry 80

Artillery 82-84

Engineers 84

Sharpshooters 84

Infantry 84-91

Of U. S. Volunteers 91

Of U. S. Colored Troops 91

Representation in the General Government 92

Cost of the War in money 93, 94

Bureau of Military Records and Relics 94—141

The women of the State 142

fart 1

3tt i>tafr-3fo IBfil

is aimed here to place on permanent record as concisely as prac- ticable, the stand and action taken by the citizens sons and daughters of the State of New York during the War ; to recite or to attempt to set forth the causes which led to the secession movement of the Southern States would be foreign to this aim. The people of this State accepted the result of the political canvass of 1860 in their usual patriotic spirit and, notwithstanding all that had passed, were not willing to believe that war might not be averted.

When the Legislature met on the first day of the new year, 1861, the Governor in his annual message discoursed the attempt at disunion with firmness, but also in a conciliatory tone, stating that the State of New York was ready, in all honorable ways, to aid in reconciling estrangements, and as willing to guarantee the rights of the slave States, as to defend her own. In opening the Assembly the Speaker referred to the perils which environed the country, to the duty of the representatives of the people in the existing crisis, and to the importance of united councils. In the Senate, a leading member of the party which had opposed Abraham Lincoln's election sub- mitted a series of resolutions, asserting it to be the religious as well as the patriotic duty of each State and citizen to preserve the Union, and requesting the Governor to tender to the President, in the name of the people, the militia of the State, to be employed in his discretion, in enforcing the laws and maintaining the Constitution. On the following day there were intro- duced in the Legislature resolutions which received large support from both parties, and recognized slavery as a disturbing element in the National councils, and, to the end that this impediment to harmony be forever removed, proposed, after the admission of Kansas, then not yet a State, to divide the remaining territories into two States, to be admitted as soon as the inhabitants thereof should adopt a constitution republican in form.

Pacification in sentiment and preparation in act were the order of the day. Select committees on federal relations were formed. Bills were brought forward for the more complete enrollment of the militia; to prohibit the

io IN THE STATE IN 1861

sale of munitions of war or the loan of money to States in rebellion; for defining treason; for providing arms; indeed for giving form in every way to the sentiment of the people. These measures were but a prelude to many others of like character recorded on almost every page in the legislative journals of that session. The members of both branches were united in action as to the duty of the hour, and the State officials were in harmony with them.

The united, firm and dignified stand of the State of New York, coupled with changes in the President's Cabinet, and a disposition on the part of the General Government to stand by the Union, reanimated public confidence and strengthened the hopes of many, but to be disappointed, for adverse forces were still at work.

On the 9th of January the Star of the West, a swift merchant steamer chartered by the General Government in New York city, and sent from there on the night of the 5th, loaded with needed supplies and men for the relief of Major Anderson, was fired upon in Charleston harbor and fire was continued after the captain had displayed the flag of the country of the United States.

The news of this act aroused the people of this State and of the whole country. Joint resolutions were promptly introduced in, and speedily adopted, with but three dissenting votes, by the Legislature, referring to the outrage upon the Star of the West; to the seizures of National property by Southern States; to the treasonable avowals of southern Senators; to the value of the Union and the necessity of its perpetuity; hailing with joy the special message of the President, in which he declared his intention to use the military power against all who resisted the Federal authority, and tendering him whatever aid in men and money he might require to uphold the authority of the govern- ment; they also expressed gratitude for the courage and patriotism of those representatives and citizens of and in the South, who labored to save their States from the vortex of secession. These resolutions truthfully reflected the sentiment of the people of the Empire State, and copies of them were trans- mitted to the President, the Governors of the States, and to the United States Senators from this State.

In the South these resolutions did not meet with favor. The Governor of Virginia understood them to be a declaration of the readiness of New York to coerce the slave-holding States into submission to Federal authority. By one or two of the Southern States the resolutions were returned without comment. The Convention of Georgia, then in session, as a response to them, adopted resolutions approving the seizure by troops of the State, of Fort Pulaski, and requested the Governor to hold the fort until the relations of Georgia to the United States should be determined.

IN THE STATE IN 1861 n

On the 24th of January the Governor transmitted to the Legislature the resolutions of the General Assembly of Virginia, inviting all states, willing to unite in an earnest effort to adjust the existing controversies and to afford adequate guarantees to the slave-holding states, to appoint commissioners to meet in Washington on the 4th of February following. He recommended the appointment of a commission as requested, and that it be composed of men in whose character and patriotism the people could have full confidence; he also urged that any proper effort should not be left untried to maintain by peaceful means the Union as it had existed for almost a century. Gladly responding tc this invitation of Virginia to aid in effecting a settlement, if possible, of the serious and important questions agitating the public mind, the Legisla- ture, a few days later, elected as commissioners from this state Messrs. David Dudley Field, William Curtis Noyes, James S. Wadsworth, James C. Smith, Amaziah B. James, Erastus Corning, Addison Gardiner, Greene C. Bronson, William E. Dodge, John A. King and John E. Wool. Mr. Gardiner declining, Mr. Thurlow Weed was appointed in his place ; on Mr. Weed's non-acceptance Mr. Francis Granger was selected to succeed him, and took his seat in the convention. The proceedings of this body the Peace Conference were without results. It could not be otherwise, for on the day it met, the Provincial Congress or Convention of the seceded states met at Montgomery, Ala., and by the i8th of February had adopted and inaugurated a govern- ment, to be known as " the Confederate States of America."

On the 5th of February the Governor of Georgia ordered the seizure, in the harbor of Savannah, of several vessels owned in the city of New York, in reprisal for the detention, by the Metropolitan police of the city, of arms consigned to the State of Georgia ; three days later, however, the vessels were released. On the 2ist this Governor again ordered the seizure of New York shipping at Savannah, and directed that the ships be detained until the arms, still held by the police, were delivered to his agent in New York city. Munitions of war were being shipped from the North to the Southern States. Proposing to stop this traffic, the police authorities of New York city ordered in the latter part of January the detention of an invoice of arms about being shipped to Savannah. Communication by telegraph ensued, and a formal demand was made on the mayor of the city by an agent of Georgia for the release of the arms. A like demand was also made, by telegraph, by the Governor of Georgia on the Executive of this state, who responded that the grave character and unofficial form of the missive forbade action until better authenticated information should be received. Letters arrived in due time and to the renewed demand of the Governor of Georgia Governor Morgan replied : " * * * Assuming I have authority to do so, you expect me to surrender

12 IN THE STATE IN 1861

(or formally to withhold) the property alleged to be in the possession of the superintendent of the Metropolitan police, by a given date. Permit me to say, that as Governor of this state, I have no power whatever over the officer who made the seizure, and had no more knowledge of the fact, nor have I any more connection with the transaction, than has any other citizen of this state; but I do not hesitate to say that the arms will be delivered whenever application shall be made for them. Should such not be the case however, redress is to be sought, not in an appeal to the Executive authority of New York to exercise a merely arbitrary power, but in due form of law, through the regularly constituted tribunals of justice of the state or of the United States, as the parties aggrieved may elect. It is but proper here to say, that the courts are at all times open to suitors, and a complaint has not reached me of the inability or unwillingness of judicial officers to render exact justice to all. If, however, the fact be otherwise, whatever authority the Constitution and the laws vest in me, for compelling a performance of their duty, will be promptly exercised. In conclusion permit me to say that, while differing widely with your Excellency as to the right or policy of your acts and of the views expressed in your several communications, I have the honor to b^ * * */' 'j^g police authorities delivered the arms in question to the agent of the State of Georgia on the i6th of March.

On the 1 8th of February the President-elect was received at the Capitol as the guest of the state, and was cordially welcomed by the Governor, the Legislature and the citizens. The chairman of the committee, on the part of the Legislature, pledged him the support of the State of New York in the discharge of his constitutional duties. For this he expressed his gratitude, and added : " While I hold myself, without mock modesty, the humblest of all individuals that have been elected to the presidency, I have a more difficult task to perform than any of them."

Events were daily rendering it more and more likely that the domestic discord would terminate in open hostilities. The probabilities of this, and the means for subduing the expected hostilities were discussed at every fireside throughout the state. The decadence of the military spirit of the people at large had been gradual, but nearly absolute. Public money expended to maintain a Militia establishment was regarded as wasted. But notwith- standing the general apathy of the people, there were still a few men in every portion of the state, and especially at the principal centres, who did not permit the military spirit wholly to die out. The principal lack was in material of war. The strength of the organized Militia was nominally nineteen thousand men ; to arm this force the state possessed but about eight thousand muskets and rifles, and one hundred and fifty smooth-bore field pieces, of

IN THE STATE IN 1861 13

almost every calibre. The National authorities were not in condition to supply the want, the late Secretary of War having sent thousands of muskets from the Watervliet arsenal to the South. This want had, however, been brought to the notice of the Legislature by the Governor in his annual message, where he pointed out the lack of serviceable military stores, and stated that the organized Militia was not provided with reliable weapons; he asked the Legislature to take early measures to supply these deficiencies, recommending for that purpose an appropriation, to be used at the discretion of the military department of the state, and a bill had been introduced providing half a million dollars for the purchase of arms and equipments. This bill, however, did not become a law until just before the close of the session, when events had demonstrated its imperative necessity.

At half-past four o'clock of the morning of the I2th day of April a shot was fired from the mortar battery near old Fort Johnson, and a moment later fell upon Fort Sumter. This shot, although not the first fired upon the National flag, inaugurated a conflict of gigantic proportions and far-reaching consequences, from which the United States emerged forever as one Country and one Nation.

The bombardment of Fort Sumter was shortly followed by its surrender, which became known at the capital of the State on Sunday morning the I4th. The news came upon the people as an event too sad for full belief. But the suddenness of the intelligence was followed by prompt and efficient action in every quarter. A meeting took place in the afternoon at the Executive chamber. There were present the Governor and other state officers, the Speaker of the Assembly and members of the military and finance committees of the two houses. A committee, consisting of the Attorney-General, the Adjutant-General, the Inspector-General, Mr. Blood of the Senate and Mr. Robinson of the Assembly, was appointed to draft a bill to be submitted to the Legislature the following morning. As drawn by the committee, the bill invested the Governor with the power of its execution, and provided for the enrollment of thirty thousand volunteer Militia to serve for two years, appropriating three million dollars to meet the expense. The Legislature connected the state officers with the Governor in the raising and organizing of these troops and the bill, thus modified, was approved by the Governor on the 1 6th. The commission created thereby was popularly known as the " State Military Board, and consisted of the Governor of the state, Edwin D. Morgan; the Lieutenant-Governor, Robert Campbell of Bath; the Secretary of State, David R. Floyd-Jones of South Oyster Bay ; the Comptroller, Robert Denniston of Salisbury Mills; the Attorney-General, Charles G. Myers of

14 IN THE STATE IN 1861

Ogdensburgh ; the State Engineer and Surveyor, Van Rensselaer Richmond of Lyons; and the State Treasurer, Philip Dorsheimer of Buffalo.

On the 1 5th of April the President issued his proclamation calling forth the Militia of the several states to the number of seventy-five thousand men, to suppress treasonable combinations and to cause the laws to be duly executed. The quota assigned to this state consisted of seventeen regiments, each of seven hundred and eighty officers and enlisted men, making in the aggregate a force of thirteen thousand two hundred and eighty men.

The State Military Board met on the evening of the i6th and the Governor submitted a dispatch from the Secretary of War, to the effect that the men called for were to be mustered into immediate service, and that he would be gratified to have one or more regiments march to Washington before the close of the week. The situation demanded prompt action; the Governor at once issued orders for the available organized Militia to march ; the Board resolved that seventeen regiments of seven hundred and eighty men each, be enrolled and mustered into service for two years, and made provisions for the prompt transportation to Washington of the regiments of the organized Militia ordered into service by the Governor, as well as of the volunteer Militia authorized by it, and for procuring necessary quarters, hospital, medical and other supplies. There was need of this action; communication with Washington was severed, and the condition of affairs there was such, that the state was left in most part to supply transportation for her troops; indeed everything in the way of accommodations for volunteers, sick and well, was to be provided by the state authorities.

The Governor's military staff was composed of men who were competent for the new and weighty duties now falling upon them. Time was not given to deliberate, the work pressed upon their attention at once. The details, as well as the general duties of the several staff departments were instantly and vigorously entered upon. An army of forty thousand men, including the organized Militia, was to be prepared for the field and all the staff officers were more than fully employed. During his administration Governor Morgan's staff consisted of: Adjutant-General J. Meredith Reed, Jr., of Albany, who resigned on account of ill health August 14, 1861, and was succeeded by Thomas Hillhouse of Geneva; Inspector-General William A. Jackson of Albany, who resigned May 17, 1861, to become Colonel of the i8th Volunteers, followed by Marsena R. Patrick, who resigned February 10, 1862, to become Brigadier-General of Volunteers, in whose place was appointed Qiester A. Arthur, who resigned July 9, 1862, to become Quartermaster- General and who was succeeded by Cuyler Van Vechten; Judge-Advocate General William Henry Anthon of New York city; Quartermaster-General

THE STATE IN 1861 15

Cuyler Van Vechten of Albany, who July 9, 1862, was appointed Inspector- General and was replaced by Chester A. Arthur; Surgeon General S. Oakley Vanderpoel of Albany; Paymaster-General Thomas B. Van Buren, succeeded by George Bliss, Jr., February 27, 1862, upon becoming Colonel of the iO2d Volunteers; Engineer-in-Chief Chester A. Arthur, appointed Inspector- General February 10, 1862; Chief of Ordnance, the constitutional Commis- sary-General, Benjamin Welch, Jr., of Buffalo; Aides-de-Camp, Edwin D. Morgan, Jr., of New York city, resigned May 13, 1861 ; Edmund Schriver from May 13 to September 2, 1861 ; Thomas B. Arden from September 2, 1861 ; Samuel D. Bradford, Jr., resigned January 31, 1862; Francis M. Rotch from February 12, 1862; Elliott F. Shepard and John H. Linsly. Several officers of the Regular Army were assigned to temporary duty at Albany about this period, to assist the military department by their experience ; of these were Colonels Delafield, Schriver and Keyes, whose names are prominent in the annals of the war.

Depots were established at New York city, Albany and Elmira, and Brigadier-Generals Charles Yates, John F. Rathbone and Robert B. Van Valkenburgh of the organized Militia, respectively, placed in command of them. Branch depots were also opened at Syracuse and Troy, and Brigadier- Generals Robert M. Richardson and Darius Allen, respectively, assigned to their charge. Orders were issued for the rendezvous and organization of men, of whom many were already arriving at these depots even before authority to receive them existed often, indeed, presenting themselves unannounced; and such was the patriotic spirit of the people that many, obviously unfit physically and by reason of age, came with the able-bodied volunteers.

Worthily interpreting the spirit of their constituency, the Legislature prolonged its session and redoubled its labors. Loyal men of all political opinions rallied around the flag of their country ; and it should be remembered as one of the noblest manifestations of that period of danger, how enthusiasti- cally the last hours of the Senate and Assembly were devoted to the duties of patriotism. Nearly a score of these legislators, who with their votes initiated the work of preparing the way of their state, followed up the public pledge, then given, with the sword. The life blood of some of these earnest men too soon became the tribute of their devotion, and they stand conspicuous in the roll of the immortal as the representative heroes of the Legislature of the State.

In this, the eighty-fourth session of the Legislature, the people of the State were represented

i6

IN THE STATE IN 1861

IN THE SENATE BY

Lieutenant-Governor ROBERT

Senator Edw. A. Lawrence, of the istdist.

Thomas A. Gardner, 2d

Francis B. Spinola, 3d

J. McLeod Murphy, 4th

Bernard Kelly, 5th

Benj. F. Manierre, 6th

Richard B. Connolly, 7th

Hezekiah D. Robertson, 8th

Robert Y. Grant, pth

Joshua Fiero, Jr., loth

John H. Ketcham, nth

Volney Richmond, I2th

Andrew J. Colvin, I3th

Joseph H. Ramsey, I4th

Isaiah Blood, isth

Nathan Lapham, i6th

CAMPBELL, of Bath, President;

Senator Chas. C. Montgomery, of the i/th dist. ;

James A. Bell, i8ch

William H. Ferry, ipth

Francis M. Rotch, 20th

Andrew S. Warner, 2ist

Allen Munro, 22d

Perrin H. McGraw, 23d

Lyman Truman, 24th

Alex. B. Williams, 25th

Thomas Hillhouse, 26th

Samuel H. Hammond, 27th

Ephraim Goss, 28th

Peter P. Murphy, ao,th

David H. Abell, 3oth

Erastus S. Prosser, 3ist

Walter L. Sessions, 32d

IN THE ASSEMBLY BY Speaker DE WITT C. LITTLEJOHN, of Oswego;

Lewis Benedict, Jr., 2d district of Albany; Henry Lansing, 3d district of Albany ; William J. Wheeler, 4th district of Albany; Wilkes Angel, 1st district of Allegany; Lucius S. May, 2d district of Allegany; Friend H. Burt, district and county of

Broome ; Nelson I. Norton, ist district of Cattarau-

gus; Franklin Philbrick, 2d district of Cattarau-

gus;

Heman Benton, ist district of Cayuga; Smith Anthony, 2d district of Cayuga; Henry A. Prendergast, ist dist. Chautau-

qua;

Hiram Smith, 2d, 2d district of Chautauqua; Lucius Robinson, dist. and county Chemung; Thomas Carter, ist district of Chenango; Samuel E. Lewis, ad district of Chenango; Henry McFadden, dist. and county of

Clinton ;

Samuel Lasher, 1st district of Columbia; Norton S. Collin, 2d district of Columbia; Loammi Kinney, dist. and county of Cort-

land;

Seymour E. Smith, 1st district of Delaware; Daniel Waterbury, ad district of Delaware; John B. Dutcher, ist district of Dutchess; Samuel J. Farnum, 2d district of Dutchess; Stephen V. R. Watson, ist district of Erie; Victor M. Rice, ad district of Erie;

Benjamin H. Long, 3d district of Erie;

Zebulon Ferris, 4th district of Erie;

Martin Finch, dist. and county of Essex ;

William Andrus, dist. and county Franklin ;

Jas. H. Burr, counties Fulton and Hamilton ;

George W. Wright, dist. and county Gene- see;

Gilbert Bedell, dist. and county of Greene ;

John Markell, ist district of Herkimer;

Josiah Shull, ad district of Herkimer;

David Montague, ist district of Jefferson;

David J. Wager, ad district of Jefferson ;

Harvey Bailey, 3d district of Jefferson;

Andrew J. Provost, ist district of Kings;

Marquis D. Moore, 2d district of Kings;

Nathan Comstock, 3d district of Kings;

James Darcy, 4th district of Kings;

Lucius C. Andrus, 5th district of Kings;

Joseph Nesbitt, 6th district of Kings ;

George H. Fisher, 7th district of Kings ;

Edmund Baldwin, dist. and county Lewis;

Matthew Wiard, ist district of Livingston;

George Hyland, ad district of Livingston;

Orrin B. Lord, ist district of Madison;

Francis A. Hyatt, ad district of Madison;

Martin Roberts, ist district of Monroe;

Lewis H. Morgan, ad district of Monroe;

Benjamin R. Wells, 3d district of Monroe;

Frothingham Fish, district and county of Montgomery;

John Callahan, ist district of New York;

IN THE STATE IN 1861

William Walsh, 2d district of New York; Christian B. Woodruff, 3d dist. New York; William J. C. Kinney, 4th dist. New York; John J. Shaw, 5th district of New York; Samuel T. Webster, 6th dist. of New York; Daniel Young, 7th district of New York; Andrew Craft, 8th district of New York; Horatio N. Sherwood, pth dist. New York; Luke F. Cozans, loth dist. of New York; John Hardy, nth district of New York; John Lambrecht, I2th dist. of New York; Charles E. Birdsall, I3th dist. of New York ; Robert C. Hutchings, I4th dist. New York ; George W. Varian, i=;th dist. New York; Henry Arcularius, i6th dist. of New York; Jay Jarvis Jones, I7th dist. of New York; Henry P. Smith, ist district of Niagara; Oliver P. Scovell, 2d district of Niagara; Francis Kernan, ist district of Oneida; Levi T. Marshall, 2d district of Oneida; Marquis L. Kenyon, 3d district of Oneida ; William Lewis, 4th district of Oneida ; Jeremiah Emerick, ist district of Onondaga; Austin Myers, 2d district of Onondaga ; Abner Chapman, 3d district of Onondaga; Perez H. Field, ist district of Ontario; Stephen H. Ainsworth, 2d dist. of Ontario; Stephen W. Fullerton, Jr., ist dist Orange; Milton Barnes, 2d district of Orange ; Gideon Randall, dist. and county Orleans ; De Witt C. Littlejohn, ist dist. of Oswego; Richard K. Sanford, 2d dist. of Oswego; Mason Salisbury, 3d district of Oswego; Elijah E. Ferrey, ist district of Otsego; Frederick A. Bolles, 2d district of Otsego ; Chas. T. Brewster, dist. and county Putnam; Stephen Taber, ist district of Queens; John D. Townsend, 2d district of Queens ; Charles J. Saxe, ist dist. of Rensselaer;

L. Chandler Ball, 2d dist. of Rensselaer; Anson Bingham, 3d district of Rensselaer; N. Dane Ellingwood, district and county of

Richmond.

Wm. R. Knapp, dist. and county Rockland; Charles Richardson, ist dist. St. Lawrence; Edwin A. Merritt, 2d dist. St. Lawrence; Clark S. Chittenden, 3d dist. St. Lawrence; John Fulton, ist district of Saratoga; James Sumner, Jr., 2d district of Saratoga; Alonzo Macomber, district and county of

Schenectady ;

Joseph Buckbee, dist. and county Schoharie; Abram V. Mekeel, dist. and county Schuyler ; William Johnson, dist. and county Seneca ; Daniel B. Bryan, ist district of Steuben; Jeffrey Smith, 2d district of Steuben; Redman S. Davis, 3d district of Steuben; James H. Tuthill, ist district of Suffolk; Alexander J. Bergen, 2d district of Suffolk; Stephen St. John Gardner, district and

county of Sullivan;

Cero F. Barber, dist. and county of Tioga; Jeremiah W. Dwight, district and county of

Tompkins ;

Robert Loughran, ist district of Ulster; George T. Pierce, 2d district of Ulster ; Benjamin Turner, Jr., 3d district of Ulster; Walter A. Faxon, dist. and county Warren; Peter Hill, ist district of Washington; Nicholas M. Catlin, 2d dist. of Washington; Jabez S. L'Amoreaux, ist dist. of Wayne; Joseph W. Corning, 2d district of Wayne ; Wm. J. McDermott, ist dist. Westchester; N. Holmes Odell, 2d dist. of Westchester; Benj. F. Camp, 3d dist. of Westchester; John J. Doolittle, district and county of

Wyoming ; Gilbert Sherer, district and county of Yates.

While officials were thus engaged, the people were alive with zeal in preparing to answer the call of the government. They held public meetings, adopted patriotic addresses, raised money and enrolled men, in every part of the state. Past political differences were forgotten. Flags were floating from church steeples, public buildings, school-houses and private resi- dences. The thrilling tones of the loyal press penetrated every household, and gave utterance to the popular enthusiasm ; its representatives threw down the pen and grasped the sword; they proposed to make the history, which they were afterwards to chronicle. All was animation and a state of peace had suddenly been transformed into a condition of war. From every quarter

i8 IN THE STATE IN 1861

came applications for authority to raise troops. The people were sensitively alive to the demands of the hour. Real or fancied delays, whether inevitable or not, were censured without stint, if not without reason. Private liberality was without bounds.

The emergency and the danger to the National Capitol were great, and well it was that some of the genuine military spirit had been kept alive. The militia regiments ordered out by the Governor for a service of three months, responded to the pressing call with an alacrity that stands to their perpetual credit. This prompt response no doubt saved the capitol from capture and spoliation. The hearts of all were quickened, when the lightning flashed from Washington its missive of doubt and despondency, of painful peril, of glad and heartfelt relief! How startling was the first summons, flashed along the wires from the threatened seat of the government; how incessant the fiery messages thereafter. Numberless messages of alarm and counsel poured upon the Governor from Washington and all parts of the state; they were the throbbings of the heart of the people.

On the 1 8th of April the Governor issued his proclamation calling upon the people for volunteers for seventeen of the regiments authorized under the act passed by the Legislature. On the iQth a great meeting of merchants was held in New York city; resolutions to sustain the government were adopted, and at the announcement that several regiments, then organizing, needed assistance, more than twenty thousand dollars were raised in ten minutes' time. On the same day the famous Seventh Militia, amidst the greatest enthusiasm, left for the city of Washington.

The next day, the 2Oth, occurred that memorable meeting in Union Square, New York city, of two hundred thousand of the people. Leading citizens without distinction of party, met there to unite their voices in support of the government. The surging crowds that filled the streets, drowned all noises in their huzzas for the Union. The meeting was an important one in every sense; its action gave direction to popular sentiment everywhere, and the Union Defense Committee was then formed from the foremost citizens of the great Metropolis. Conventions and meetings were held on the same day in Schenectady, Hudson, Utica, Oswego and Rochester, and troops raised and means provided. The people of Poughkeepsie, Troy, Auburn, Syracuse and Buffalo also met to counsel on the best mode of responding to the country's call. Town and village, great and small, were likewise engaged. Albany and Elmira were changed, in a few hours, from business centres into military camps.

On the 2ist, the Sixth, Twelfth and Seventy-first regiments of the Militia left the city of New York en route for Washington. On the 22d, a patriotic

IN THE STATE IN 1861 19

meeting of the Bench and Bar of New York city took place, at which money was subscribed by the thousands; the city of New York appropriated one million dollars for fitting out soldiers and supporting the families of volunteers; and the Twenty-fifth regiment of Militia left Albany for the endangered Capitol of the country. The succeeding day, the 23d, witnessed a great meeting in Brooklyn, at which Robert J. Walker, a former Cabinet officer, and resident of a seceded state, addressed the people, and the departure from Brooklyn of the Thirteenth, and from New York city of the Eighth and Sixty-ninth regiments of the organized Militia of the state. On the 26th, the Secretary of War wrote to the Governor: " I have to repeat the acknowledgments of this department for your very prompt and energetic action in sending forward the troops of your state." On the 27th the Fifth regiment of Militia of New York city; on the 28th the Twentieth regiment of Militia of Kingston; on the 2Qth the Ellsworth Fire Zouaves, later the Eleventh Volunteers, a two years' regiment, of New York city, and on the 3Oth the Twenty-eighth regiment of Militia of Brooklyn, left the state for active service.

The remaining regiments of the organized Militia were preparing to march, when in the first days of May, their orders were countermanded upon receipt of information from the General Government that no more three months' men were desired. Four companies of the Seventy-fourth Militia volunteered then, and left Buffalo for Elmira May 3d, escorted to the depot by the Home Guards, of which Ex-President Fillmore was major and in command.

The Militia regiments, when starting for Washington, were accompanied to the points of embarkation by the people. Their line of march was a perfect ovation; thousands filled the sidewalks; private and public buildings were decorated with banners, and there were many touching scenes of farewell taking.

The enlistment of volunteers under the Governor's proclamation of the 1 8th of April proceeded with great rapidity. On the 22d, only a week after the proclamation of the President, eighty-two companies had been accepted, and the State Military Board adopted a resolution " to organize the remainder of the force provided for in the act of April i6th."

Firearms were now the serious want. On the 24th of April an agent was sent to Europe to purchase twenty-five thousand stands of the most approved pattern, and also a supply of fixed ammunition. The agent carried a letter of credit for half a million dollars, and a communication from the Governor to Lord Palmerston, requesting him to sanction these purchases by the state. The Governor-General of Canada, meanwhile applied to for authority to

20 IN THE STATE IN 1861

purchase arms in his territory, replied that he was not permitted to allow munitions of war to be taken from that province. In Europe the agent found that large orders had been sent out from this country and that the Spanish government was a heavy purchaser of arms in the British markets. He, however, obtained nineteen thousand Enfield muskets at a cost of three hundred and thirty-five thousand dollars. His first shipment was refused passage by the English steamship company, though sent to Galway by the house of Baring Brothers.

On the 25th of April the Governor, in accordance with the resolution adopted by the State Military Board, issued his proclamation for volunteers for twenty-one additional regiments, making the total number of regiments to be organized for two years' service thirty-eight, and completing the force of volunteer Militia authorized by law.

Public manifestations increased. Nationalities vied with each other in the work of raising regiments and sustaining the government. On the 25th of April an enthusiastic meeting of the British residents was held in New York city; followed a few days later by a Union meeting of the French residents. The Germans met frequently in large assemblages, and other nationalities were equally active. Distinctive regiments of Irish, Scotch, Germans and French were being raised for the war. The Common Council of Buffalo made a large appropriation to equip a local regiment. Troy established a special depot and raised money for its support. Other cities and towns were not behind in the work. Collections were made in churches and at other assemblages for furnishing needed supplies for the soldiers and for supporting their families. Active patriotism prevailed in business circles ; bankers and commercial men were furnishing money by the tens of thosuands. Mechanics and manufacturers were vieing with others in the work of for- warding men and providing for those at home. Representatives of all pro- fessions and pursuits were found in the ranks or hastening to the rendezvous. The Union Defense Committee, the Merchants' and the German committees, the Chamber of Commerce, churches and citizens of New York city and other localities, throughout the state, assisted with money in defraying the expenses of the organizations springing up all over the country.

On the /th of May the Governor, expressing his gratification at the alacrity and self-sacrificing spirit displayed by the people, announced that the maximum number allowed by the act of April i6th having been enrolled, expenditure of time or means should not be uselessly incurred by the patriotic citizens of the state in further efforts for new organizations.

May 3d, the President issued a call for forty-two thousand and thirty-four volunteers for a service of three years, and the War Department granted

IN THE STATE IN 1861 21

authority to committees and individuals to recruit regiments, crediting them to the state, so that when, May 25th, the organization of the thirty-eight two-years' regiments was completed, the number of men required from this state was found to be already filled, while but a part of the troops raised by the state authorities had been accepted by the General Government. This created a serious embarrassment and a delay in forwarding troops. The term of service of the New York contingent had been fixed by law at two years and could therefore not be changed, otherwise matters could have been arranged more quickly. However, the State Military Board insisted that the troops raised by authority of the state should be received wi