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Copyright, 1882, by Louis H. Everts.







the model newspaper of the United States. This great Structure, as it was Mr. Abell'-s creation, will also become his monument. It is a Perfect Piece of Work, "not built by envious show," yet symmetrical in all its Parts, and the Pride of the Generous Architect swells chiefly at the Fact that, as it was reared with no man's ruin and to no man's hurt, so there are none who witness its Prosperity with Envy or wish its .solid columns less stately in their vista. It is so built that there is always not only encouragement, but neces- sity, for its expansion ; its influence in the community, always large and strong, and always increasing, must ever be on the side of virtue, honor, justice, and enlightenment, since the public will never believe it capable of utterance or suggestion on any other side.

The Founder's Sons may be expected to maintain in its pristine integrity, develop, enlarge, and beautify the original work ; but neither They nor the Public will ever fail to uphold him for its creating and per- fecting should he depart now, or should his life be spared to us for multiplied years, which all trust and

prav, none more ferventlv than




The preparation of such a work as the " History of Western Maryland" imposes a vast responsibility and an immense amount of labor. Years of study devoted to the subjects embraced in it, the encouragement of friends, and the enterprise of the liberal publisher induced the author to undertake the work.

In the compilation of this history no authority of importance has been overlooked. The author hiis carefully examined every source of information open to him, and has availed himself of every fact that could throw new light upon, or impart additional interest to, the subject under consideration. Besides consulting the most reliable records and authorities, over fifteen thousand communications were addressed to persons supposed to be in possession of facts or information calculated to add value to the work. Recourse has not only been had to the valuable libra- ries of Baltimore, Annapolis, Frederick, and Hagerstown, but the author and his agents have visited personally the entire territory embraced in the six counties of Western Maryland, spend- ing much time in each district, examining ancient newspapers, musty manuscripts, family, church, and society records, conversing with the aged inhabitants, and collecting from them orally many interesting facts never before published, and which otherwise, in all probability, would soon have been lost altogether. In addition to the material partly used in the preparation of his " Chroni- cles" and " History -of Baltimore City and County" and " History of Maryland," the author has consulted an immense number of pampiilets, consisting of county and town documents, reports of societies, associations, corporations, and historical discoui-ses, and, in short, everything of a fugi- tive character that might in any way illustrate the history of Western Maryland. From these and a large collection of newspapers (more particularly a nearly complete file of the Hagerstown Torcldight, Mail, Spy, and Herald, which were kindly loaned by Messrs. Mittag, Bell & Wil- liams, and E. W. Mealey) great assistance has been derived.

With the aid of Prof. Philip R. Uhler, the topography and geology, as well as the geog- raphy, of Western Maryland have received the attention which their importance demands. Sketches of the rise, progress, and present condition of the various religious denominations, pro- fessions, political parties, and charitable and benevolent institutions, societies, and orders form a conspicuous feature of the work. Manufacturing, commercial, and agricultural interests have also a prominent place. An account of the county school system is also given, and a history of the various institutions of learning of which Western Maryland has every reason to be proud. Many of the facts recorded, both statistical and historical, may seem trivial or tediously minute to the general reader, and yet such facts have a local interest and sometimes a real importance.

An honest effort has been made to do justice to both sections in the relation of such events of the civil war as come within the proper scope of a purely local history. The author has made 1 5


no attempt to obtrude his own political views upon the reader, and has constantly kept in mind the purpose that has guided his labors, to present a work free from sectional or partisan bias which shall be acceptable to the general public.

Considerable space has been given to biographies of leading and representative men, living and dead, who have borne an active part in the various enterprises of life, and who have become closely identified with the history of Frederick, Washington, Montgomery, Allegany, Carroll, and Garrett Counties. The achievements of the living must not be forgotten, nor must the memories of those who have passed away be allowed to perish. It is the imperative duty of the historian to chronicle their public and private efforts to advance the great interests of society. Their deeds are to be recorded for the benefit of those who follow them j they, in fact, form part of the his- tory of their communities, and their successful lives add to the glory of the Commonwealth.

A distinguishing feature of the work is its statistics of the various districts into which the six counties of Western Maryland are divided. In them the reader is brought into close relation with everv part of Western Maryland. The advantage of this method of treatment is obvious, embracing, as it does, narratives of early settlements, descriptions of interesting localities, and per- sonal reminiscences. The maps, views, and portraits are a prominent accompaniment, and add interest and attractiveness to the subjects which they are designed to illustrate and explain. Our acknowledgments are due to many friends, not only for a kindly interest shown in our labors, but for much valuable information, furnished in many cases without solicitation.

In presenting the " History of Western Maryland" to the public the author feels conscious that he sends it forth with many imperfections. In the preparation of a work of this char- acter many minor inaccuracies and errors are almost unavoidable, the existence of which it is impossible to discover until the book has been exposed to the light of general criticism. It may not be considered presumptuous, however, to express the hope that its general conception and execution will be satisfactory to the community for which it has been written, and that it will prove useful and interesting to all classes of readers.

J. Thomas Schaep.

Baltimore, Feb. 10, 1882.




Topography and Geology 13

CHAPTER II. The Aborigines 46

CHAPTER III. The Early Settlers 58


The French and Indian War 74

CHAPTER V. Logan and Cresap 101

CHAPTER VI. Boundary Lines Ill

CHAPTER VII. The War for Independence 121


The Constitution and Union 161


The War of 1812 174

CHAPTER X. The Civil War 194

CHAPTER XL First Year of the Civil War 211

CHAPTER XI L Maryland Campaign of 1862 227

CHAPTER XIII. The Gettysburg Campaign 262

CHAPTER XIV. Close of the Civil War 283

CHAPTER XV. Record of Maryland Volunteers in the Union Army in the War of 1861-65 298

CHAPTER XVL Record of Maryland Commands in the Confederate Army during the Civil War of 1861-65 329

CHAPTER XVII. Political Progress 340

CHAPTER XVII L Frederick County 358



Land Grants and Resurveys 371

CHAPTER XX. The Bench and Bar 380


Early Court Proceedings 416

CHAPTER XXI L Public Schools, Internal Improvements, and Agricultural Societies 432

CHAPTER XXIIL Distinguished Men of Frederick County 449

CHAPTER XXIV. County Officers 476

CHAPTER XXV. Frederick City 483

CHAPTER XXV L Religious Denominations and Cemeteries of Frederick City 501


Press of Frederick 527


Banks and other Financial Institutions 538


Secret Orders, Benevolent Societies, etc 545


Prominent Institutions and Events 562


Frederick County Districts and Villages 565


Montgomery County 640


Courts and County Officials 657


Educational and Miscellaneous Matters 669


The District of Columbia 686


Internal Improvements in Montgomery County 696


Montgomery County Districts 717




Arms of William Penn and Lord Baltimore 116

Baker, Daniel facing 568

Baltimore City in 1800 166

Barney, Commodore Joshua ISS

Barnsley, Wm. B 780

Battle of South Mountain 234

Baughman, John W 532

Biggs, Joshua facing 580

Bowie, Richard J " 754

Braddock, Gen 81

Brooke, Roger facing 774

Brown, H. C, Residence of " 573

Barnside's Bridge 246

Cashell, Hazel B facing 719

Calvert, Charles. Fifth Lord Baltimore " 113

Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton " 125

Carroll, Charles, of Carrollton " 439

Chase, Samuel " 384

Clagett, Thomas, with Residence " 544

Clemson, John 603

Clemson, John, Residence of facing 603

Congress Hall 62

Cooke, Nathan facing 785

Culler, John 580

Davis, Allen B., Residence of facing 771

Davis, Eli '• 606

Davis, Henry W 387

Deaver, Capt. H. T., Residence of facing 622

Downey, William " 609

Dulany, Danie! " 382

Dunker Church 239

Feaga, Wm. M 559

Frederick, Sixth Lord Baltimore facing 360

Gaither, Henry C " 600

Gorman, Arthur P " 713

Gott, B. C " 730

Griffith, H " 737

Griffith, Lebbeus, Sr 604

Hanson. Alex. C 142

Hanson, John 450

Hobbs, Edward facing 601

Hopkin.o, Johns 681

Houck, Ezra facing 539

Houck, Geo, Residence of " 571

Howard, Gen. John E 176

Hughes, Hon. C, Jr 192


Hutchinson, H. M., Residence of facing 644

Johnson, Reverdy 386

Johnson, Governor Thomas facing 389

Kenly, John R " 304

Key, Francis S " 399

Kunkel, Jacob M " 554

L.akin, D. T " 435

Lee, Gen. Henry 165

Lewis, C. M., Residence of facing 623

Lewis, Jacob, with Residence ** 572

Lynch, John A " 404

Map of Battle of Antietam " 240

Map of Western Maryland between 12, 13

Martin. Luther 383

McElfresh, John H facing 415

McMahon, John V. L 386

McMurray, Louis facing 492^

McSherry, James 413

O'Donnell, John C, Residence of facing 620

Palmer, William P " 778

Peter Cooper's First Locomotive 440

Peter, M.ij. George facing 732

Phillips, Lycurgus " 615

Pinknoy, William 384

Ray, Alfred facing 763

Riley, P. C " 783

Rouzer, John *' 630

Schaeffer, William A " 735

Scharf, J. Thomas Fronthpiece.

Schley, Fairfax facing 448

Shriner, E. A., with Residence " 624

Smallwood, Gen. William " 138

Smith, Gen. Samuel 167

Staley, Cornelius facing 557

Steiner, L. H " 488

Stocks and Pillory 420

Strieker, Col. John . 168

Taney, Roger B 394

Thomas, C. K., Residence of facing 574

Thomas, John H 341

Trail, Charles E facing 540

Urner, Milton G " 409

Williams, John T " 607

Winder, Gen. William H 187

Wirt, William 385

Young, Isaac facing 727


Sjtefraved ejepressli^ for Sclxcwi's Ki^taru

'RiiilTa\ed expi'essli) th]- Schnrfy HistoTy






The section of country embraced in the following descriptive outline is a long strip, running from east to west, widened on the ends, and extending from the western boundary of Baltimore County to the extreme limits of Maryland next to West Virginia. It consists of six large counties, among the most fer- tile, varied, and populous in the State. These are Frederick, Montgomery, Washington, Allegany, Car- roll, and Garrett Counties. This region is bounded on the north by Mason and Dixon's line, which separates it from Pennsylvania, and on the south by the Potomac River, whose bending channel breaks the outline into a series of long and short curves, and cuts it oflF from West Virginia and Virginia. It might be regarded as of the form of a low bridge or arch, the keystone of which would be placed at Hancock (where the county is narrowed to a breadth of only one and a quarter miles) ; the wider end would rest on the District of Columbia, and the narrower end would stand on the source of the north branch of the Poto- mac River. The length of this strip is about one hundred and forty miles, and the width is about fifty miles, from north to south, across the east, and nearly thirty-six miles, in the same direction, across the west end.

It embraces almost every variety of surface within the State, the lowlands at tide-water and the ocean shores only being excepted. For convenience, the region may be divided into four great sections, marked by well-distinguished features of the surface, and coinciding sufficiently with the groups of rocks upon which it rests.

' Contributed by Prof. Philip R. Uhler, president of the Maryland Academy of Sciences. 2

As no part of the Tide-water Belt strictly oc- curs within this territory, the first to be noticed is the Midland Belt. It begins about five miles back of the inner limits of the tides in the rivers, such as the Potomac and Patuxent, and extends westward to an oblique line running from the mouth of the Monocacy River to the sources of Piney Creek, in Carroll County.

The second is the Blue Ridge Belt, which runs from the basin of the Monocacy and the head-waters of Piney Creek to the west side of the summit of the Blue Ridge, or South Mountain range.

The third is the Great Valley, extending from the western side of the summit of South Mountain to the corresponding part of the summit of North Moun- tain. It is occupied chiefly by the extension of the Cumberland Valley of Pennsylvania, which is widely known as the Hagerstown Valley, and which, south- west of the Potomac River, becomes the great Valley of Virginia.

The fowth is the extensive Appalachian Belt. This is pre-eminently the mountain region, and ex- tends from the summit of North Mountain to the western boundary of the State.

Each of these divisions includes smaller belts and tracts of country, which may be recognized by a dif- ference in the quality or color of the soil, and by the kinds of native rocks which rest near the surface.

Midland Belt. This embraces the greater part of the two most eastward counties, Montgomery and Carroll. The lowest lands occurring within its limits belong to the southern extremity of Montgomery County, where the primitive rocks dip beneath the soil to stretch off under the deep basin of the Chesa- peake Bay. These are tracts of clay, gravel, and sand, the former resting directly upon the eroded surfaces of granite, gneiss, and hornblende, and the



latter spread over the surface of the low hills of clay and rock by floods and by the retreating tides of a former ocean. Several of these areas reach back into the country for a distance of nearly seven miles, while the more gravelly portions are confined to a belt vary- ing in width from two to five miles. The clay area extends through the District of Columbia and Prince George's County into this region, chiefiy along the ancient valleys of the streams, spreading more broadly from thence, and covering parts of the adjacent hills. On the northwest of the former the surface rises grad- ually by a series of rounded plateaus, until it cul- minates about twenty miles back in the folds and crest of Parr's Ridge. An altitude of about nine hun- dred feet is now attained, and the backbone of this range is seen to stretch away from near the Potomac River on the southwest in a wavy line, through the eastern part of Carroll County in a north-northeast direction, then wi'h a backward bend as Westminster is reached, and acioss the boundary into Pennsylvania. It forms a high fold in the talcose slates, which, de- composing, serve to furnish a fairly light and kind soil, capable of being made very productive of all the cereals and fruits of temperate eliiuates. A fine agri- cultural tract is also seen to spread away on both sides, presenting large farms of real fertility, and attesting the thrift of the inhabitants, whose ample barns and well-kept houses greet the eye on every hand. The soils belonging to this system of rocks extend as far as to the base of the Sugar-Loaf Mountain on the west, interrupted in the west corner by the red sand- stone soils, and on the east extend as far as to the boundary of the archrean lands on Rock Creek. They also send ofi' two tongues of the same kind of soil, the one reaching to near the northern . angle of the Dis- trict of Columbia, and the other running parallel with the Putuxent River as far as to the source of Paint Branch. The ridge forms the dividing line between the creeks and rivers which flow towards the east and south and those which course southwest and west. In most parts the scenery offers a pleasing va- riety, but the wildest and most romantic spots are to be met with in the thinly-settled section on the head- waters of the various tributaries of the Patuxent River. There the hills are abrupt, high, and broken, flanked along the sides by lower and more rounded knobs, which have lost their former angular summits by reason of the softer and less resisting materials of which they are composed. Deep, sudden ravines, set with angular and piled-up rocks, are seen at frequent in- tervals, and through these the limpid waters of the rivulets and branches leap with never-ceasing activity over moss-covered bowlders, amid the tangled branches

of flowering bushes and creeping vines. On these ridgy hills, too, the principal forests still remain. Second-growth trees of various kinds oaks, hickory, walnut, beech, maples, sour-gum, dogwood, tulip-pop- lars, elm, hazel, a few pines, and numerous chestnut- trees still serve to cover the wilder places and store : the moisture to feed springs and rivulets.

As usual, the dark-gray and silvery minerals com- posing the rocks of this region are attacked by the at- mosphere, frost, and heat ; they crack into slaty joints, I change to a rusty color, and then disintegrate into a pale-yellowish micaceous and aluminous soil. Moisture, supplied by the morning and evening vapors, creeps into these, in common with many other kinds of cleav- j ing, cracking rocks, carries carbonic acid and other ! solvents into the interstices between the grains, and j sets up chemical activities which rapidly reduce them to powder.

Commencing in Montgomery, on the southeast, the country rises by series of water-worn plateaus, or hills, with shallow, narrow depressions intervening, giving I the effect of interrupted table-lands. The roads in- < tersect ledges and masses of granite, gneisses, horn- [ blende schists, and, at the lowest levels, the black hornblende rocks. As in Baltimore and Howard, so here, this latter seems to be the bed-rock which un- j derlies, holds, or gives rise to all the later ones of the j formation. It crops out in the beds of the streams, I such as Rock Creek, Paint Branch, and the tributaries of the Potomac south of the Great Falls, and is also indicated in places adjacent to the Patuxent. It un- derlies the mica schists where in most places their lower exposures are visible, and it forms bowlders on ! the sides of the hills and partly in the drift of the I lower and central parts of this county. I Crossing the rolling slope which descends immedi- I ately west of Parr's Ridge, the valley of the Monocacy River is reached, and the talcose slates become more aluminous. Here and there chains of high domes I stretch from the northeast towards the southwest, aud L the higher swellings are seen to be composed of the I tougher beds of the rock, while the lower undula- . tions appear more shattered, broken next the surface into small fragments, and exhibit marked evidences of decay. Near the mouth of the river erosion and frequent washings have opened out a wide basin, I which is now covered by the alluvium of this stream. i It has thus brought some of the best fertilizing ingre- dients of the distant rocks within the reach of the agriculturist, who has thus been enabled to profit by the opportunity to secure most abundant crops of In- dian corn, clover, hay, etc. On the northwestern side of this county a broad belt of red sandstone hills runs



down to the bed of the Potomac River. They begin a little east of Seneca Creek, and extend to within a few rods of the mouth of the Monocacy River. These rise in their more central parts in majestic piles, like huge ranges of masonry, swelling to a height of more than one hundred and fifty feet above the basin of the Potomac. Colossal chimney-rocks stand up like tall sentinels on the dark-brown walls of precipitous sand- stone, and craggy peaks jut out at various angles over the vast piles of overthrown blocks, which join to at- test the power of the forces that have snapped them apart and pitched their shattered fragments upon the buttresses below. This is a section full of delightful scenery, and beset with a multitude of surprises for the attentive eye. It abounds in objects of the weird and grotesque, and is quite unlike any other part of the great triassic framework to which it belongs. The great river itself spreads away in a silvery sheet through solitudes broken only at distant intervals by the lonely bird or the more fearless hunter or fisher- man.

Montgomery County has an area of five hundred and eight square miles ; it is the most southern of the counties included in the present notice, and posses.ses in an eminent degree those peculiarities of surface, soil, and climate which contribute to the health and prosperity of the inhabitants. It is about twenty- eight miles long from northwest to southeast, by about twenty-three miles wide on its northern bound- ary, and seventeen miles across its southern ex- tremity. No mountain ranges actually exist within its limits, but, instead, the system of high hills known as Parr's Ridge crosses it diagonally a few miles from its northern border. The hills and plateaus already described occupy the chief parts of its surface, and serve to separate the numerous rivulets, branches, and creeks which so abundantly water almost all sections of its territory. Although large tracts of uncleared lands appear on the uplands and undulations next these water-courses, yet large farms have been cleared in most parts of the county, and others of even greater size form the larger part of the area in the more north- ern and central divisions. The upper part of the great plateau around Sandy Springs, which was originally but little better than a sandy waste, has been almost turned into a garden by the energy and intelligence of the inhabitants. An almost endless variety of soils appears as the different parts of the country are ex- amined, and in nearly all the natural quality is well adapted to the purposes of agriculture. The north- ern and western portions are especially the home of the grasses and cereals ; the warm hillsides promote the growth of the grape and fruit-trees ; the small

fruits succeed well on the more loamy and sandy de- pressions of the midlands and more southern sections, and in the bottoms the native bushes, flowering shrubs and plants form a varied and comprehensive collec- tion.

In the expanded portions of the old beds of the creeks the decaying leaves and other vegetable matter, drifted down from the higher levels, joined to the washings brought down by freshets and overflows, lias placed vast beds of humus and rich soil within easy reach of the florist and horticulturist. The more rocky streams are decorated by the kalmia, or common laurel, which grows in thickets between the gray rocks, in the loose, rich soil. In the spring the golden blossoms of the leatherwood, the sassafras, the clear lilac of the Hous- tonia, and the delicate pink of the Chiytonia add a cheerful brightness to the tender verdure of the open woods, while the advancing summer is made rich by the fragrant flowers of the magnolia and azaleas, the showy sepals of the dogwood, the clustering bloom of the snowy viburnum, the odor of the wild grape, and the splendor pf the native lily. The waters, too, are studded with the huge, fragrant rosettes of the pond- lilies, and teem with the numerous varieties of pickerel plants, water plantains, arrow-heads, and a host of others too numerous to mention. Alders group them- selves on the damp spots of the basins, the swamp- maples spread their broad limbs over the pools, and the greenbrier binds the crown of the bushes in a maze of perpetual green.

Between the mouth of the Monocacy River and Seneca Creek the brown sandstone hills were formerly covered with a luxuriant growth of the sugar-maple. An abundant supply of sugar was obtained from the trees, and this industry was one of great importance to the inhabitants. But now these forests are re- placed by other kinds of trees, forming a later growth of uncommon variety. Chestnut, red, black, and other oaks, ash, hickory, elm, walnut, and, most of all, false locust grow in thick woods, set with a dense undergrowth of bushes, creepers, and grape-vines. At intervals, where the hills are eroded to near the water-level, wide lowlands stretch back into the coun- try, the margins of which are occupied by large speci- mens of the sycamore, sour -gum, and occasionally the tulip-poplar. The vistas across these broad plains are broken here and there by low spurs of hills, which stand out like islands. These are usually wooded, fade out imperceptibly into the lowlands, and form a rich relief of dark color to the paler and yellower greens of the grasses and cereals of the wide-spreading fields. Usually the remote background, two or more miles away, is formed by higher hills of similar dark



green, rendered more soft and blue by the distance, while in the interval are large farms of high culture, with excellent houses, immense barns, and numerous haystacks. Herds of cattle, groups of horses, and flocks of sheep have their appropriate places on the open undulations and in the meadows, giving a pleas- ant air of animation to the scene, and adding to the enjoyments of rural life. Milk is abundant, and the water is soft, pure, and plentiful. Little rills pursue their way in unbroken steadiness through these meadows, or burst with impetuosity from the rocky hillsides to plunge into the creeks beyond.

Much of the successful farming of this county has been due to the free use of lime. The soils being naturally sour, require the addition of this sub- stance or plaster of Paris. Some of the farmers along the high-roads leading into the Frederick Val- ley, or near the line of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, transport the limestone to their farms, where they burn it in kilns, and then oifer the surplus for sale to their neighbors. The stone is brought either from the western section of the red sandstone or from the valley of the Monocacy, in Frederick, and is partly of the variety known as calico-rock, or Potomac breccia.

The region around Brookville and the valley of Hawling's River have likewise been enriched by the intelligent use of lime. Although naturally thin, and being composed in part of the magnesian minerals de- rived from serpentine and talcose slates, they have been transformed into some of the richest and most productive lands in the county. The region west of this gradually changes into the ophiolite, or serpentine formation. It consists of a series of rounded hills, running from the ridge on which Damascus, Cracklin- town,etc., are situated, and continued in sloping spurs towards the basin of the Patuxent River. This belt of country, which widens as it enters the county, pro- ceeds southwestward, and maintains a breadth of about three miles, until it fades out before reaching the Po- tomac River. A wide strip of pine woods stretches along the greater part of its length, occupying a chain of low hills, on which the soil is the poorest and thin- nest in the county.

The whole country is abundantly supplied with streams of water, which rise in the uplands, and stretch away towards the creeks and rivers by passing through the bottoms and around the hills. Five prin- cipal systems of drainage are found within its limits, the Patuxent on the east, the northwest branch of the Potomac and Rock Creek on the south, Seneca Creek on the west, and the Monocacy on the northwest.

The Patuxent Eiver rises in the corner of Parr's

Ridge next to Howard County, in a region of high hills, very picturesque, and full of rugged rocks, dis- posed in almost endless variety. More than a dozen of its little tributary branches start from springs in the dark rocks, push their way in tortuous threads, as twisted as the arms of an octopus, leap over sharp bowlders, and whirl along as rapids in the wider gaps, until they have settled to a level low enough to unite with the waters in the deeper trough of the river. At first the river proper is a comparatively narrow creek, forcing its way into deep ravines between the hills, rushing violently through cracks in the rocks, and forming cascades by plunging from the bowlders which stand in its path. But after leaving the bar- riers west of Triadelphia it rapidly widens, and be- comes a strong, full stream, running with great rapid- ity in a more steeply-cut channel. At occasional intervals it spreads (where the softer rocks have given way) into shallow basins, in the midst of a fine over- growth of white and other oaks, and through almost impenetrable thickets of bushes, shrubs, and vines of various kinds. East of Sandy Spring the river has piled up for hundreds of feet back beyond its present channel vast areas of clay and reddish micaceous soil, which stand like cliifs and barriers on either side. From a remote period it has been the great sewer for the drainage of a large part of this and the adjoining (Howard) county.

During the great ice ages the amount of solid rock, in the form of bowlders, gravel, mineral paste, grit, and mud that it has contributed to the estuaries of the former Atlantic Ocean is only to be estimated by the enormous beds and deep deposits of these substances to be seen in crossing the counties of Prince George and Anne Arundel. Along the border of Montgomery County it can only be estimated as a broad, rapid creek ; but at a distance of twenty-five miles south of this limit it becomes a large river, navigable for schooners and vessels of moderate size.

The Potomac River bounds the whole length of the western side of this county, and receives numerous tributaries from the adjoining hills, but its description properly belongs to the general belt of counties, in and where it will be found.

The northwest branch of the Potomac River is but a small creek in this county. It rises in two princi- pal branches, fed by several small brooks in the re- gion southwest and south of Sandy Spring. It runs in a somewhat zigzag southeast course between the sandy and clay hills, through a ratlier depleted coun- try in which the red clay and heavy soil abounds. After having pursued a course of about twelve miles amidst the tangled bushes and low woods, it passes



beyond the boundary, two miles south of Burnt Mills.

Kock Creek, The next system of drainao-e to be noticed is that of Rock Creek. This is an important stream, carrying a large body of water, fed by several tributaries along both bank.s, and supplying water- power to numerous grist and saw-mills. It rises in the region northwest of Brookville, in the midst of craggy masses of talcose schists, which are traversed by innumerable veins of white quartz. The rills which form its source leap down from the silvery rocks in frequent cascades, cool and limpid, shaded by bushes, tangled vines, and canopies of ferns ; then breaking into rapids as they strike the bowlders in their path, they finally spread out in a broad, active stream as the vicinity of Rockville is reached. The creek passes through a pleasantly diversified country, uncovering here and there along its margins the ledges of hornblende, gneiss, steatite, and sienite which un- derlie the soil. Along its banks the decomposing rocks yield red and yellow lands of decided fertility ; a large part of these have been cleared, and while some parts have been worn out by crops of tobacco, others now comprehend some of the best-tilled farms in the county. The copious supply of water afforded by this stream and its tributaries has fed the trees and contributed towards the growth of a luxuriant vegeta- tion. The original forests which here covered the land were formed of the grand old white oaks, with a numerous company of other oaks, of several kinds of hickory, of walnuts, tulip-trees, maples, gums, syca- more, and dogwood, with a varied retinue of bushes, flowering shrubs, and creepers. Now their successors, of less impressive size, still luxuriate in the rich allu- vial soils of the bottoms, or spread along the misty summits of the hills. Everywhere the horizon is bounded by a stately belt of verdure, which gives variety and freshness to the dull uniformity of the plowed fields and denuded hillsides. After running in a southwestern course for about fifteen miles, the creek crosses into the District of Columbia, and finally buries itself in the Potomac River within the limits of Georgetown. A great part of its bed is clogged by the bowlders of hornblende and gneiss which have been torn from the sides of the uplands by the furious floods which have penetrated the region.

Seneca Creek next claims attention as forming another separate outlet for the waters of the county. It rises by numerous tributaries in the high country bordering the fork of Parr's Ridge, and is separated from the head-waters of the Patuxent River by only the outlying barrier of talcose slates which curves from the vicinity of Damascus to Cracklintown, and

continues thence to Mechanicsville and beyond. Some of its sources start in the dark mounds of serpentine rocks which contain the chrome-iron ore. The tribu- taries at its head bend in almost countless curves to evade the frequent hills and swells of surface studding that section. On the eastern side it receives three large branches, the Whetstone, Long Draught, and Dawes' Branch, and on the western side the Little Seneca and the Dry Seneca, all of which are fed by copious and constant springs. Taken altogether, it is a long and wide-reaching stream, extending nearly across the entire width of the county, bending into sudden loops towards the west until Dawsonville is reached ; next with equal abruptness it stretches south with fewer bends, and then straightening out, it emp- ties into the Potomac River. It passes in most parts through a country abounding in round-top single hills and short knobs, although the whole system of swells belongs to a broad fold of the surface whicli. runs almost to the Potomac River, and includes two minor folds, known as Oak Ridge and The Pines. This higher district is peculiar to the eastern side of the creek, and is chiefly built into the magnesian rocks, with thin and lean soils. On the western side, north of the Little Seneca, the rocks are chiefly talcose slates of green and red tints, largely invaded by veins of white quartz, and extensively shattered into joints inclosing angular fragments. " Between the Little Seneca and Buck-lodge branch the quartz is more porous, the pores lined with black oxide of manga- nese, and occasionally inclosing specular oxide of iron. In this direction the talcose slate varies in color from red to grayish and blue, assuming a more decidedly slaty character, and finally passing into the true clay- slate. About the region of the Dry Seneca, and stretching to the mouth of the Seneca proper, the rocks are red and gray sandstones and shales, whilst near the mouth of the Monocacy River, and between it and the Little Monocacy, the sandstone varies in color from gray to red." This rock also assumes a difference in texture and composition, ranging from a fine-grained, uniform sandstone to a gritty and uneven conglomerate. The creek, including its numerous windings, has a total length of about twenty-six miles, ar>d, together with its tributaries, drains an area of more than one hundred and thirty-six square miles. At its head-waters the country is wilder, much diver- sified, and well pervaded with ledges and beds of broken rocks, but as the creek widens and takes on its well-settled form the region is more extensively cleared, farms appear on every hand, and the wood- lands are more restricted to the tops of the hills and to the rocky alluvial basins of the stream. After



crassing the Rookville turnpike it becomes a creek fully thirty feet wide, runuiiig through a well-defined trough, extensively bounded by alluvial banks, and continuing in a slowly widening channel until, near the splendid aqueduct which crosses it and carries the water of the canal, it becomes a full stream at least sixty feet wide, and almost equaling the Monocacy in its volume of water. The brown soil through which it passes in its lower division imparts some of its color to the creek, so that the stream is usually seen to have a rusty brown tint.

Besides the larger streams already described, a mul- titude of small branches pour into the Potomac River from the ravines opening out on that side of the county, and thus an abundant supply of water is seen to be secured. But here as elsewhere the injudicious clearing away of the forests has laid the surface open to the sun, and the springs which formerly supplied the rivulets that fed the creeks and rivers have become dry, and a great volume of water has accordingly disappeared from the larger streams.

The Monocacy River has several small tributaries which rise in the slate-lands within the western part of this county. But the only considerable one of these is Bennet's Creek. It starts from many sources among the broad, round, clay-slate hills southwest of Damas- cus, and bending westwardly, passes behind the Sugar- Loaf Mountain to empty into the river. Like most of the other branches which have their sources in the slates, it bursts forth from cavities in the midst of the shattered rocks, and pursues its course in deep chan- nels along narrow ravines, expanding but little in its course, and finally passing out into the wider stream through alluvial beds of its own construction.

The resources of Montgomery County are adequate to the wants of a large and varied population. In- dustries of nearly all kinds possible to an inland country can be successfully conducted within its limits. As already noticed, ample water-powers for driving mills and machinery are present in nearly all the larger streams. The Great Falls of the Potomac pours the heaviest volume of water to be found in the State. Broad belts of alluvial soil